TIGER, NO LAUGHING JOKE
How is a tiger's face like your thumb?
ANSWER: The stripes on the tiger's face are like your thumbprint. No
two people have exactly the same thumbprint. And no two tigers have exactly
the same stripe pattern.
It takes a lot of muscle to move a 400-pound body (180 kilograms). And
a tiger's body is packed with muscle. So it can leap 10 yards (9 meters)
over level ground, or jump 15 feet (4.5 meters) in the air. Yet it can move
so gracefully that it doesn't make a sound.
Tigers are big-game hunters. They hunt water buffalo, wild pigs, deer,
and other large animals. Water buffalo weigh more than a ton (900
kilograms). It would take 13 men to move such an enormous weight.
Tigers are also big eaters. In a single year, one tiger must eat about
70 deer or other large animals. That is one reason why tigers hunt alone.
If they lived in big groups, they could never find enough prey to feed them
Many people think that a big, dangerous tiger could easily kill all
the prey it wants. But that's not true. In fact, the life of this big game
hunter isn't easy. Most of the animals it tries to attack get away. It
sometimes goes weeks without eating. And then it may hunt animals that can
be dangerous, even for a tiger.
To get enough food, tigers have to hunt day and night. They often hunt
at night, because that's when deer and antelope are most active. Tigers
also hunt at night because they are safe from humans then.
When it hunts, a tiger usually sneaks close to its prey by hiding
behind trees, bushes and rocks.
Tigers cannot run fast for long distances. So they must get close to
their prey before attacking. On their huge, padded feet, they can creep
silently to within 20 feet (6 meters) of another animal without being
heard. Its rear legs press beneath it, like a pair of giant springs about
to be released.
Then, in a series of explosive leaps, it attacks from behind.
Next, the tiger grabs its prey with its claws and pulls it to the
ground. It bites the animal on the throat or on the back of the neck
The tiger has had a long history; the name tiger itself comes from the
Roman word "Tigris", named after the mighty Mesopotamian Tigris River. The
tiger's closest living relative is the lion, and believe it or not, they
can even be interbred. The male tiger can reach sizes of up to 8-10 feet in
length, with three feet for the tail, the male Siberian tiger can reach
lengths of up to 13 feet with weights up to 750 pounds. Tigers can be found
in a fairly diverse area, from north China and Siberia, to the jungles of
Indonesia, even as far west as Iran and the Caucasus Mountains.
The tiger is a solitary animal, hunting mainly at night. The tiger's vision
and sense of smell are relatively poor; the tiger will rely strongly on its
sense of hearing, moving silently through the brush waiting to ambush its
prey. The tiger's main diet consists of deer, antelope, wild pigs, and
cattle. The man-eaters are all too often the sick and injured, too weak to
hunt and capture wild animals. The tiger would much rather flee rather than
stick around and put up a fight.
Tigers are excellent swimmers and will often rest in pools of water
just to escape the heat, or, will swim from island to island such as in the
Sumatran islands. Tigers are poor tree climbers, often only doing so in
emergencies or when they are young, (and on occasion, just out of
curiosity). The Bengal, or, Indian Tiger is the
The largest of all living tigers lives in the coldest climate; but has
thick fur to keep it warm. Its pale color makes it difficult to spot in
the bleak, snowy landscape of Siberia and also makes it easier to get close
to its prey. There are no more than 200 Siberian tigers living in the
The Indian tiger is the most common tiger in the world today. In all,
there are about 2,500 left, and most of them live in India.
Hunting tigers used to be a sport for the rich people of India. But
it wasn't really a sport, because the tigers had little chance of escape.
The hunters rode on elephants, while their servants drove the tigers toward
their guns. Over the years, thousands and thousands of tigers were killed
Their stripes hide them as they stalk prey in the jungle. How? Their
stripes look like the shadows of tall blades of grass, or like shadows and
light playing across trees.
For a fierce hunter, you'd think that food would be plentiful. Not
true as most attacks fail. There may be weeks without eating.
Some Sumatran villagers believe that the tiger holds magical powers
and that it's very bad luck to kill them.
Tigers are among the most admired and most feared animals in the world.
When we think of tigers, we think of danger. We think of powerful beasts
hiding in the dark jungle. We think of the strong jaws, big teeth, massive
feet, and long, sharp claws of the tiger.
But we also think of beauty. We picture a tiger running swiftly through a
jungle, or plowing through snowdrifts. Its muscles ripple. Its brilliantly
striped orange and black coat gleams like satin. Its steely eyes glare into
the distance as it looks for prey.
This animal is a hunter. In fact, tigers are probably better than any other
land animal at capturing large prey single-handedly. Even so, the life of a
tiger is not easy. Finding food can be difficult, especially for a tiger
that is old or weak.
When they are desperate, some of them may even attack humans. But tigers
also get blamed unfairly for many deaths. Very few people are really killed
by tigers each year. Most tigers run away when they see people. And with
What tigers have done to people is nothing compared to what people have
done to tigers. Over the last 200 years, we have almost eliminated them in
the wild. Today, they are one of the most endangered animals on earth.
If humans do not disturb it, a tiger may live 20 years or more. Females
usually live longer than males, because the males live more dangerously.
They often fight among each other. Sometimes one of them is killed this
way, or wounded so badly that it cannot hunt.
It isn't easy for people to tell a male tiger from a female, unless
the female happens to be with her cubs, because only females take care of
the young. Otherwise, the most obvious difference between males and females
is size. Male tigers are much bigger. An adult male Bengal or Indian tiger
usually weighs about 420 pounds (190 kilograms), and from head to rear, it
is roughly seven feet long (2 meters). Females are about a foot shorter (30
centimeters), and they weigh about one hundred pounds less (45 kilograms).
Sumatran tigers are generally smaller than Indian or Bengal tigers. The
biggest tiger ever measured was a male Siberian Tiger. It was over 9 feet
long (2.6 meters) and weighed more than 700 pounds (320 kilograms).
Tigers once roamed over most of Asia. Some trekked over the frozen
north, others climbed the jagged mountains of Central Asia, and many crept
through the steamy jungles of the south. The tigers that lived in these
different places gradually developed into a number of different types, or
Although tigers have been able to live in different climates and
landscapes, they have not been able to live alongside people. In fact,
people have killed so many tigers that two races may already by extinct.
The Bengal tiger is the most common tiger in the world today. In all,
there are about 2,500 Bengal tigers, and most of them live in India. The
Caspian tiger is one that you will only see in pictures. This beautiful cat
is now extinct. The Chinese tiger used to live in most parts of China.
Today, there are fewer than a hundred Chinese tigers in the whole country.
The Siberian tiger is the largest of all living tigers. It also lives
in the coldest climate, but it has very thick fur to keep it warm. And its
pale color makes it hard to see in the bleak, snowy landscape of Siberia.
This makes it easier to get close to its prey. There are no more than 200
Siberian tigers living in the wild.
Sumatran and Javan tigers live on land south of the Asian continent.
Their islands are covered by heavy, tropical jungles. To help them run and
hide in the jungle, these tigers are smaller than other tigers. Today,
there are fewer than 30 Sumatran and Javan tigers left in the wild.
The body of a tiger is like a deadly weapon. It has the quickness and
strength to take down animals twice its size. It has long, razor-sharp
claws for grabbing its prey. And it has enormous teeth, which can easily
kill large animals.
But a tiger is also very quiet. It can sneak up on its prey without
being seen or heard. And its stripes help it do this, because they make it
easier for the tiger to hide. You will also discover another reason why a
tiger's stripes are interesting. You can learn to tell one tiger from
another by its stripes.
Like other cats, tigers usually keel their claws hidden beneath the
fur. This way the claws do not wear down too quickly. And they won't make
noise when the tiger steps on rocks or hard ground. When it wants to use
its claws for grabbing or scratching, the tiger will extend them.
Tigers have longer canine teeth than any other predator. One of these
teeth is at least 10 times longer than the biggest tooth in your mouth.
Using its big canine teeth and its broad, powerful paws, a tiger can kill
its prey with one quick bite.
Tigers and other predators play an important role in nature. By
killing deer and other prey, they keep the numbers of these animals under
control. And because of this, the animals that survive are healthier.
If there were no tigers in the wild, the number of prey animals would
grow too fast. At first, they would eat so much that they would destroy
many plants. And then many of these animals would go hungry.
A big, hungry tiger can eat about 100 pounds of meat (45 kilograms) at
one sitting. This is about one fifth of its total weight. That would be
like a 10-year-old human eating 40 hamburgers in one meal. Of course, a
tiger has to eat this much because it often goes several days without
On occasion, a tiger will attack a baby rhino. This can be dangerous
though, because the mother rhino is probably close by. And even a tiger
does not want to make a four-thousand-pound rhino (1,800 kilograms) angry!
If a tiger is hungry enough, it may even attack a bear. But that may
be a big mistake.
Baby tigers look like cute kittens. At birth, they are about 12 inches
long (30 centimeters), and they weigh less than two pounds (one kilogram).
But in a year's time, these "kittens" will be big enough to hunt deer and
A mother tiger usually gives birth to two, three, or four cubs at a
time. This is necessary so that at least one of her cubs will survive. Many
predators attack tiger cubs. To help keep them safe, the mother stays with
her cubs for three or four years. During this time, the young tigers have a
lot to learn from her if they are to hunt and survive on their own.
Animals, unlike man, must either capture prey, or, evade predators. In
order for these animals, such as the tiger, to get close enough to its prey
for the attack, these animals must be able to hide, or blend in with the
background. That way the prey animal does not know that they are there…
The tiger uses what is known as disruptive camouflage, which means
that instead of blending in with it's surroundings, the tiger uses it's
stripes to break it's outline, or familiar shapes into smaller unfamiliar
Like all young animals, cubs are full of energy. They spend their days
wrestling, chasing each other, and darting after butterflies. All this
exercise helps prepare them for their first real hunt. And they are ready
for this when they are about six months old.
It's hard to believe that in just six months, a playful little cub
will be a ferocious hunter. By then, it will weigh almost 200 pounds (90
kilograms) and have four big canine teeth for attacking prey.
A female tiger is one of the most loving and caring mothers in the
animal kingdom. She cuddles her babies to keep them warm. She feeds them
and protects them from enemies. For three years or more she looks after
them, teaching them how to hunt and survive in the wild.
This cub is only a few weeks old. In the wild, cubs are usually born
in caves and other protected places. The mother keeps them there and brings
them food for about three months. After that, the cubs are big enough to
follow her as she hunts for prey.
The life of a baby tiger can be dangerous. If a mother leaves her
cubs, even for a short time, they may be attacked by predators. Some of the
animals that like to eat tiger cubs are leopards (left), pythons (below
left), and hyenas (below right).
CLOUDED LEOPARD: PRECIOUS CARGO
One chapter in the Zoological Society's clouded leopard story began
early in 1983 with the arrival of a young pair of cats from the People's
Republic of China. The cats were a welcome addition to the Society
collection. Staff prepared a plan to encourage successful breeding, but
unfortunately, tragedy occurred before the plan could be implemented.
In the exhibit, the female was accidentally exposed to a male, which
severely mauled her right foreleg and shoulder. The injury was so severe
that, because of the initial trauma and resulting fast-spreading infection,
amputation of the leg and affected scapula were required to save her life.
The difficult surgery was masterfully conducted. Intensive care was
required for more than two months. The veterinary staff and a hospital team
kept the cat alive through repeated tube-feeding and frequent hands-on
care, despite the cat's aggressive distrust of such treatment. Following
many weeks of this regimen, the cat responded and made sufficient recovery
to allow her return to the leopard exhibit.
A primary hurdle had been cleared -- the female had survived the
injury. Next to be resolved were her adjustments to life on three legs and
finding a method which would allow her reintroduction to the Chinese male.
First, the mammal staff placed the cat in a program designed to help
her grow accustomed to life with three legs. After several months of
satisfactory progress, the staff decided to place her with the male, who
had been kept in a separate but adjoining room. The animals were allowed to
make contact as they chose. To the relief of all, the reintroduction was
successful. The cats proved to be compatible, and, shortly after
reintroduction, breeding took place.
On the morning of April 25, 1984, final proof of the success of a long
and difficult management program arrived-- a litter of two cubs. One cub
did not survive, but the other was taken to the Children's Zoo to be raised
by the nursery staff.
The clouded Leopard has intrigued its public, been sought after for
its fur, and mystified those who would try to categorize it. During the
early morning hours of April 25, 1984, a discovery was made which was the
culmination of a saga, which held elements of zoo diplomacy and goodwill,
tragedy and suspense, cooperation and success. The discovery climaxed a
chain of events surrounding this paradoxical cat.
This cat has behavioral and physical traits typical of the small cats,
genus Felis, and the big cats, genus Panther. A paradox to taxonomists and
zoologists, it has been assigned to its own genus, Necrfelis, and is
considered a bridge between the two larger genera. A relationship to the
extinct saber toothed cat has even been suggested, based on the physical
characteristic of having, in proportion to body size, the longest canines
of all living felines. Its canine structure is also similar to that of the
The clouded leopard has a body size ranging from 24 to 42 inches (616-
1,066 mm) Its tail adds another 21 to 36 inches (550-912 mm) of length.
This leopard's weight falls between 35 and 50 pounds (16-23 kg). Its fur is
grayish brown to tawny yellow and has dark markings in a variety of shapes,
which seem to form cloudlike patterns.
The clouded leopard was once believed to be exclusively arboreal and
nocturnal. Recent observations in captivity and in the wild indicate,
however, that it may be considerably more terrestrial and diurnal than
previously thought. It is believed to prey upon birds, young buffalo,
cattle, deer, goats, monkeys, pigs, and porcupines. The species is
difficult to manage in captivity because of a tendency to be highly
aggressive toward other species and humans. The exceptionally long canine
teeth can easily inflict mortal injury. True to its paradoxical reputation,
however, some cats may become extremely affectionate toward humans, even
permitting and seeking physical contact.
NORTH CHINESE LEOPARD
This leopard is so rare that humans almost never see it in the wild.
It roams the forests and mountain meadows of northern China and Korea.
It makes its home in a great tangle of fallen trees and shrubs. When
it kills smaller animals it devours them right away. But when it comes to
larger prey, like deer and wild goats, the leopard drags the animal home to
save for several meals.
Don't be scared. The teeth of this snarling leopard won't hurt you.
On the contrary. It's the snow leopard that should be afraid. Its
relatives in the wild are in constant danger from poachers who want to
shoot them for their pelts and teeth.
Even though shooting leopards is illegal, it's considered "good
business." That's because some people still wear leopard fur coats, and
others believe that leopard teeth earrings and necklaces have special
SNOW LEOPARD: COLD WEATHER CAT
The shy, nocturnal and virtually unknown Snow Leopard is classified
with the big cats, but shares some small cat characteristics, for example
it doesn't roar and it feeds in a crouched position.
The Snow leopard has to contend with extremes of climate and its coat
varies from fine in summer to thick in winter. The surfaces of its paws are
covered by a cushion of hair, which increases the surface area, thus
distributing the animal's with more evenly over soft snow and protecting
its soles from the cold.
Snow leopards are solitary except during the breeding season, (January
to May), when male and female hunt together, or when a female has young.
One to four young are born in spring or early summer in a well-concealed
den lined with the mother's fur. Initially, the spots are completely black.
The young open their eyes at 7-9 days, are quite active by two months, and
remain with their mother through their first winter
Snow leopards are extremely rare in many parts of their range due to
the demand for their skins by the fur trade. Although in many countries it
is now illegal to use these furs, the trade continues and the species
remains under threat.
They live in the snow-covered mountain peaks of Central Asia. How
high do these Asian Mountains rise? They reach 20,000 feet in altitude.
The snow leopard's long, thick fur keeps it warm even in the frosty
air, and its creamy white and gray color camouflages it in the snow.
Because humans are fond of turning its beautiful coat into coats for
themselves, the species is on the brink of extinction.
This hyena is also known as the "laughing" hyena. Sometimes a hyena
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