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Архитектура Великобритании

Архитектура Великобритании

Кафедра профессиональной иноязычной подготовки


ДИСЦИПЛИНА: Практика устной и письменной английской речи (V курс)

ТЕМА: Культура и искусство стран изучаемого языка

РАЗДЕЛ: Архитектура Великобритании

ЧАСЫ: 20 часов


Пояснительная записка

Содержание УМП

1.                 Цель и задачи изучения раздела

2.                 Учебно-методический блок: серия заданий на основе видеоматериала

3.                 Учебно-исследовательский блок: вопросы для самостоятельного изучения с помощью дополнительной литературы, тематика мини-исследований по теме

4.                 Информационный блок: дикторские тексты видеофильма

5.                 Приложения: комментарии к дикторским текстам


Изучение культурного наследия стран изучаемого языка, в особенности такого вида искусства, как архитектура, должно проходить в нестандартной форме. Предлагаемый аутентичный видеоматериал предназначен для изучающий английский язык как иностранный. Он представляет собой блок страноведческой информации, которая раскрывается на фоне запоминающихся зрительных образов. Все это усиливает эмоциональное воздействие на студентов, открывает дополнительные возможности пополнения знаний и формирования профессионально значимых умений.

Видеофильм "The Spirit of Britain" (Дух Британии) дает возможность организовать серию занятий по практике устной и письменной английской речи, основной практической целью которых выступает совершенствование умений аудирования и неподготовленной устной речи. Работа с видеоматериалами носит интегрированный характер, так как предполагает привлечение и использование знаний и умений, полученных студентами при изучении таких дисциплин, как страноведение, литература Англии, стилистика.



·               Практическая цель – дальнейшее совершенствование навыков аудирования и развитие умений неподготовленной устной речи на изучаемом иностранном языке.

·               Развивающая цель – комплексное совершенствование умений восприятия фактов иноязычной культуры.

·               Воспитательная цель – углубление понимания значения архитектуры как одного из видов искусства.

·               Образовательная цель – расширение знаний студентов об истории и культуре Великобритании.

ЗАДАЧИ изучения раздела:

·               дать представление о различных архитектурных стилях, известных в строительном искусстве Великобритании;

·               научить узнавать архитектурные особенности, характерные для британских памятников архитектуры;

·               развивать умения восприятия и обобщения страноведческой информации, сравнения и сопоставления ее с фоновыми знаниями о родной культуре.

2.  УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЙ БЛОК: серия заданий на основе видео



1.1. No doubt you've read some novels where the action is set in the Middle Ages. What do you think a medieval castle looks like? Share your views.

1.2. Can you guess what these word combinations mean?

- a manor house - a gate house

- a parish church - an architectural gem

1.3. Study these new words that will help you understand the video better.

- a huddle - woodworks

- a recess - elaborate

- opulence


2.1. While watching the video try to concentrate on finding the answers to the following questions:

a) What purpose was Stokesay Castle built for?

b) Is the emphasis in Stokesay on comfort rather than on defense ?

c) Does Stokesay have the right to be called an architectural gem? Share you views.

2.2. Try to single out one of Stokesay nooks that caught your fancy, give the reasons why.

2.3. Complete the following according to the information on video.

Stokesay is the most _____________ early fortified manor house in England.

This unique castle is ____________ hundred years old.

The castle has been under _____________________ program recently.

The only really-fortified part of the castle is ____________________.

What is remarkable about Stokesay is that _____________________.


3.1. Think of your very own answers to the following:

a) Would you prefer to live in Stokesay?

b) There is a proverb: "An Englishman's house is his castle" Does Stokesay prove this?

c) A parallel can be drawn between Stokesay Castle and one architectural relic in Belarus. Can you name this structure? Can you come up with its detailed description?

3.2. Read the description of a medieval castle taken from the book "Catherine, Called Birdy" by Karen Cushman, paying attention to all the details. Can you feel the atmosphere of the epoch?

"…Clattering over the moat bridge, we passed through the main gate into the castle yard. The castle seemed like a small stone city. Huddled against the great curtain wall with its stone towers were buildings of all sizes – a slope-roofed storage shed, a kitchen with a chimney like a church steeple, the great hall, a brewhouse, thatched, barns and stables, a piggery, a smithy, and the chapel.

The yard teemed with sights and sounds. Great snorting horses coming or going just milling around stirred the rain and snow dirt into a great muddy slop. Peasants held wiggling, squawking ducks and chickens by their feet, shaking them in the face of anyone who might buy. Laundresses stirred great vats of dirty clothes in soapy water like cooks brewing up some gown-and-breeches stew. Bakers ran back and forth from the ovens at the side of the yard to kitchen with great baskets of steamy fresh bread. Masons chipped stones and mixed mortar as they continued their everlasting repairs. Everywhere children tumbled over each other and everyone else, stealing bread, chasing dogs, splashing and slopping through the mud.

As we drew near to the great hall, the smells overpowered even the noise – the sour smell of the sick, the poor, and the old who crowded about the door, waiting for scraps of food or linen, the rotten sweet smell of the garbage and soiled rushes piled outside the kitchen door, and above all the smell of crisping fat and boiling meat and the hundreds of spices and herbs and honeys and wines that together make a castle dinner".

Does Stokesay correspond to your idea of a medieval castle? Explain, please.

3.3. There is a proverb: "An Englishman's house is his castle". Stokesay seems to be the very proof of this. Do you agree? Why (not)?

KENWOOD (2 часа)


1.1. There have always been castles and mansions famous not only as architectural gems but also as frames for renowned art collections. Could you recollect the names of just a few of such places?

1.2. You'll have a chance to see the portrait of a Lady Hamilton. Does her name ring a bell? Share your ideas with your groupmates, or be prepared to dig for more information after class.

1.3. Study the following words and make sure you understand their meaning:

- a crest - grandeur/grandiose

- to bequeath/bequest - an array

- in one's own right - to dazzle

- ornate - wayward


2.1. Answer the question: where does the secret of Kenwood's magic and popularity lie?

2.2.Mark the sequence in which the following items appeared in the video:

_______Henry Moore's sculptures

_______the library

_______circular balustrade

_______the Guitar Player

_______Portrait of the artist

_______Sham bridge

_______mirrored recess,

_______Madonna and Child

2.3. Make sure you understood everything correctly. Study the brief description below and say what is not in accordance with the narration in it.

Rembrandt's Portrait of an Artist is one of the least famous of his paintings. Dated from four years before his death it reflects all the despair of an aging painter. Yet this tragic figure still seems heroic, though aware of the fact that his glorious days are long gone.


1. Some names of the painters mentioned in the video definitely ring a bell. Point them out and present some information concerning their life and creative activity.

2. Now watch the video sequence again and answer, what was so peculiar about Lord Ivy's taste concerning paintings.

3. Kenwood is a real treasure trove, isn't it? But there is something more than that. It reflects the personality of its owner; can you guess what Lord Ivy was like? Create his personality profile.



1.1. You are going to see the remains of the first ever Cistercian monastery in England. Do you happen to know anything about the Cistercian order? If not ask Teacher for more information.

1.2. Make sure you know these words; that will facilitate your understanding:

- serenity - tumult

- to thrive - to abandon

1.3. Make a list of the numerous architectural terms mentioned in the video. They are typical of descriptions of major religious buildings, aren't they? Compare your list with the teacher's one:

- an arcade - a nave

- a buttress - a shrine

- an aisle - an altar

- a transept


2.1. While you are watching the video, try to unveil the mystery: what drew people to this lonely and secluded spot?

2.2. Continue the statements based on the information.

- It was deliberately built by the monks ____________________________

- Architecturally, it's an example of _______________________________

- The nave is a good demonstration of the early belief in ______________

- The number of monks living here is estimated at ___________________

- The first Abbot, William, was entered in a shrine after ______________

2.3. Due to the peculiarity of natural conditions the canons of religious architecture were violated. Which of the traditions was violated and why?


3.1. Which of the adjectives can be attributed to the way of life the monks used to lead in the Abbey? Find as much proof in the video as you can to confirm your point of view.

Choose from: lonely, spiritual, far-away, abandoned, pious, elaborated, religious, creative, working, impractical, traditional, peaceful, serene, marvelous, free, tumultuous, wordly.

3.2. Now watch the video again and comment on the atmosphere that every visitor can't help feeling when inside the Abbey. Is that atmosphere felt as you watch the video?

3.3. These picturesque ruins could be used as a perfect setting for a movie based on - well, choose one of the three possibilities. Could the film be based on (1) an anti-utopian fantasy; (2) a gothic novel; (3) an international spy thriller? (4) sci-fi odyssey; (5) musical; (6) soapy melodrama; (7) historical romance.

Explain your choice, please.

BELSAY HALL (2 часа)


1.1 Read a beautiful description of a 'room with a view' taken from Daphne du Maurier's Rebecca (1938). Say what the flowers add to the atmosphere of the place and why.

This was a woman's room, graceful, fragile, the room of someone who had chosen every particle of furniture with great care, so that each chair, each vase, each small, infinitesimal thing should be in harmony with one another, and with her own personality. It was as though she who had arranged this room had said: 'This I will have, and this, and this,' taking piece by piece (...) each object that pleased her best, ignoring the second-rate, the mediocre, laying her hand with sure certain instinct only upon the best. There was no intermingling of style, no confusing of period, and the result was perfection in a strange and startling way, not coldly formal like the drawing-room shown to the public, but vividly alive, having something of the same glow and brilliance that the rhododendrons had massed there, beneath the window. And I noticed then that the rhododendrons, not content with forming their theatre on the little lawn outside the window, had been permitted to the room itself. Their great warm faces looked down upon me from the mantelpiece, they floated in a bowl upon the table by the sofa, they stood, lean and graceful, on the writing-desk beside the golden candlesticks.

The room was filled with them, even the walls took colour from them, becoming rich and glowing in the morning sun. They were the only flowers in the room, and I wondered if there was some purpose in it, whether the room had been arranged originally with this one end in view, for nowhere else in the house did the rhododendrons obtrude. There were flowers in the dining-room, flowers in the library, but orderly and trim, rather in the background, not like this, not in profusion…

1.2. Many of the well-known plants have - well, if we may say so - English roots. Study several descriptions and guess the English names of the plants. (See Appendix 1 for more information.)

A. It is a plant grown for its striped leaves and blue, white, or pink flowers. It is also called spiderwort. The name comes from modern Latin, named for John Tradescant or his son. The name of the plant is________________.

В. It comes from Africa. It's a perennial plant that is widely cultivated for its showy flowers that are often unusual or irregular in shape. It was introduced in late 18th century and named for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen of George III. It's called_______________________.

С It's commonly called wax plant or porcelain flower or wax vine. In fact, it is an Asian and Australian evergreen climbing plant or shrub that is related to milkweed and bears waxy white flowers. It was named after the English gardener Thomas Hoy. It's original name is_______________________.

1.3. A house of a person of means is often a mirror reflecting the image of the owner. Do you agree with the statement? Give a couple of examples to prove the above.


2.1. Taking into account the indisputably original character of Belsay, we can suggest the idea of Sir Charles Monk's originality, can't we? Take a mental note of Sir Charles' views on life and love, on lakes and lawns.

2.2. Mark the sequence in which the following themes are discussed:

·                    Belsay gardens present a unique medley of local and tropical plants, that looks as natural as it can be;

·                    Belsay Hall attracts visitors by its architectural perfection making it one of the most magnificent estates in the Border Country;

·                    Belsay gardens are located in the former quarry, which supplies special microclimate;

·                    the original nucleus of the estate was Belsay Castle;

·                    the grounds are a perfect place for crochet;

·                    bewitched by the Greek arch style, Sir Charles Monk renovated his estate.

2.3. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions taken from the tape:

- the Border Country - a romantic tableau

- an eccentric - to be bewitched by

- a medley - to quarry

- a landscape architect - the feeling of utter seclusion

- features on the wail - sumptuous gardens


3.1. Think of all the components that make Belsay Hall a harmoniously beautiful landmark of the Border Country. Which of them seems to you the most stunning one?

3.3. One author described a fabulous house surrounded by picturesque environs like "a jewel in a ring". This metaphor can be well-applied to Belsay Hall, cant it? Can you come up with some of your own metaphors to refer to Belsay Hall?



1. In the video you will hear several outstanding historical figures mentioned. Some of them are: William the Conqueror, Sir Winston Churchill, QueenMother. Do you know anything about their role in history?

1.2.These words will help you to grasp the narrator's speech better:

- astride - a sweeping view

- a rampart - a siege

- a keep - a stronghold


2.1. Try to catch the names of two more famous Britons mentioned in the narration. Both were military leaders. Their names are…Can you say anything about their role in the history of Britain? Which of them appeals to you more and why? Don't hesitate to defend your point of view.

2.2. Give answers to the following questions:

a) Where and with what purpose was Dover Castle built?

b) What is its oldest surviving building? By the way, does the name ring a bell?

c) What can you say about Hubert De Burk and his contribution to the castle appearance and role?

d) The castle retained its strategic importance for centuries didn't it? Why was it put to military use during World War II?

e) What is so special and unique about Dover Castle?

2.3. Dover Castle is often referred to as the key to England. Pay special attention to the information who and when tried to use that "key".

2.4. The conclusion to the narration is that Dover Castle is the most important coastal defense work in Europe and probably one of Europe's best preserved strategic strongholds. Take note of the facts to prove that.


3.1.Watch the video again and find detailed information for the following:

a) Dover Castle in Early Britain;

b) Dover Castle in the Middle Ages;

c) Dover Castle in the 19th century;

d) Dover Castle during World War II and in the period of the so-called nuclear threat.



1.1. Some architectural relics owe their fame to myths or legends. Could you recall but a few of such places located anywhere in the world.

1.2. Comment on the following passage from Thomas Malory's Death of Arthur. "Yet many men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of Our Lord Jesus into another place; and many men say that he shall come again, and he shall win the holy cross. I will not say that it shall be so, rather I will say that here in this world he changed his life. But many men say that there is written upon his tomb this verse: HIC IACET ARTHURUS, REX QUONDAM REXQUE FUTURUS. (Here lies Arthur, the once and future king.)" What does this text imply?


2.1. Two enigmatic personalities are mentioned in the video. Try to catch their names and try to recall where and when you might have come across the information about them. Are they just mere names or more than that?

2.2.These words will help you understand the narrator's speech better. Make sure you understand them well.

- to jut out - an enigma

- a causeway - obscure

- to foster(somebody)

2.3. Complete the following statements according to the narration.

Tintagel Castle is a place without _________________on the British Isles.

The building site must have been a former ________________________.

The evidence is that it could have been the stronghold of ____________.

Legend has it that it was in Merlin's cave that _____________________.

Tintagel's fame is based not on fact but on ________________________.


3.1. Fact and fiction are intertwined in Tintagel Mythology. Separate fact from fiction with the help of the following chart.



3.2.      So what is it that draws crowds of curious tourists to this enigmatic place: historic facts or legends? Try to argue your point.

3.3.      If you ever made up your mind to go to Tintagel, what would be your primary reason to do so? Explain your point of view.

3.4.      Use the information in Appendix 3 to tell a magical Tale of Tintagel.

AUDLEY END (2 часа)


1.1. There are some mansions and palaces that simply compel us to describe them in such terms as "magnificent", "opulent", etc. Could you name several places with such excellent characteristics?

1.2. Biblical themes and allusions are many in any form of art. Architecture and painting are no exception. What do know about the Last Supper. Why are so many works of art dedicated to this mythological meal?

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