Student: Sophy (IX form)
Teacher: Smirnova T. V.
P L A N:
1. Food celebrates life.
2. Food nourishes language.
3. Food for different cultures:
a. From land and sea
b. From high in the mountains
c. Meals in Britain
d. American food and drink
e. Kazakh traditional dishes
4. Food is symbolic.
5. Food as a fad or cult.
6. Plan a healthful diet.
7. Food is the staff of life.
“Every man is the builder of a temple called his body (1817-1862) ”
Thoreau, Henry Davia
English will have become an important tool for communication and
discovery rather than just another class to attend. And we would like to
look at the all-important topic, Food.
Food Celebrates Life.
Have you ever noticed how much of our life is centered on food? Look at
all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergers consummated over a meal:
power breakfast, power lunch, dinners, banquets, receptions, and those
endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where food is all-important:
weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national holidays, etc. Food is
the great icebreaker when people meet for pleasure or business. Food is at
the center of many of our important activities.
Food Nourishes Language.
Because of this importance, much of our language (regardless of the
language) contains references to food. These references conjure up images
worth a thousand words each. The idiom page contains several references to
food and shows how these are used in a non-food-related discussion. Think
about the idioms and expressions in your native language related to food
and how and when you use them. Do you use food expressions to describe
someone’s physical characteristics (e.g., He’s as skinny as a string bean;
his belly shakes like a bowl full of jelly.); or, to describe someone’s
personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am puff; she’s as sweet as sugar.) or, to
describe a situation or activity (e.g., Something is fishy here; That
crossword puzzle is a piece of cake.). How we use food expressions depends
on how we perceive the food, or the culture associated with the food.
Food For Different Cultures.
Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your
everyday and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat? In
the movie Indiana Jones and Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which
the two characters are offered meals from a different culture. One meal,
meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was a lavish
banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live snakes,
eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat such
things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats, dog meat, horsemeat, bats,
animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.
Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are related
to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live near
water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and crustaceans.
People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier, fatty foods.
However, with the development of a global economy, food boundaries and
differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continent
expect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all over the world.
Mexico: Beans and rice
Corn tortillas (2 servings)
Black beans (2 servings)
Rice (2 servings)
Couscous (wheat pasta)
India: Sag paneer4
Indian cheese (2 servings)
Rice (2 servings)
Chapati (wheat bread)
Spaghetti (2 servings)
Tomato sauce (2 servings)
Chicken breasts, baked
Rice (2 servings)
USA: Barbecue chicken and potato salad5
Chicken breast, barbecue
Corn (1 ear)
What do people eat?
Many factors determine the foods that people eat. Geography and climate,
tradition and history: They all go into our meals. In European country of
Spain and the Asian country of Nepal, different cultures and customs affect
what people eat.
From Land and Sea.
Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, on the western edge of
Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
Spain’s dry climate and poor soil make farming difficult. Extensive
irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberries and rice in dry areas.
Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains, and olives and
grapes grow in the river valleys.
The grasslands of the large dry central plateau are used for grazing
sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this region eat roasted and boiled
meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage called chorizo. And
people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic and the
One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster, or
chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice. Peasants were
the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But this dish
and others also reflect Spain’s history of traders, conquerors, and
explorers who brought a variety of food by land and by sea.
Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced grapes to Spain in about
1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives from what is now
Italy. In the 8th century A.D., Moors (Muslim Arabs and Berbers from
Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran, or saffron – the spice
that colors rice yellow. And in the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s, Spanish
explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East
Indies: and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas.
From High in the Mountains.
Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain
range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones – lowlands;
hills, mountains, and valleys; and the Great Himalayan Range – with
subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in vegetation
and animal life.
Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow fruits, fruits, and other
crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are the warmest. Rice and corn
grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields in the cooler hill regions. And
potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops at higher elevations,
where temperatures are the coolest.
The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and yaks for dairy products. Meat is
eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rules affect which meats
people in Nepal eat: Hindus, who make up almost 90 percent of the
population, do not eat beef, and Muslims do not eat pork. The Buddhist
religion prohibits the killing of any animals but allows the eating of
meat, so Buddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.
A typical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with lentil
gravy) or chapati (a flatbread), steamed vegetables, and achaar (a paste of
spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of the Nepalese people live in
rural areas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators or for cooking,
so they rely on dried foods such as grains, lentils, and beans.
People carry traditions and foods with them when they move from one
place to another. You might recognize examples when you look at your
classmates’ special family foods or at specialty restaurants in your
Meals in Great Britain.
The two features of life in England that possibly give visitors their
worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking.
A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal – sausages, bacon,
eggs, tomatoes, and mushrooms. People who do have a full breakfast say
that it is
quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham once gave the following advice:
“If you want to eat well in England, eat three breakfasts daily.” But
nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal. Many people just
have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey.
Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam
is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which
people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee,
which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this
For many people lunch is a quite meal. In cities there are lot of
sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want
– brown, white, or a roll – and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to
go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food both hot and cold.
School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack
from home – a sandwich, a drink, some fruit and perhaps some crisps.
British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.
“Tea” means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have
afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream
teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.
The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They
usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole
family eats together.
On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat,
either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy.
Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.
The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian,
French, Chinese, and Indian. The British have in fact always imported food
from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major
influence on British cooking. Another important influence on British
cooking was of course
the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green grass,
and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of
meat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces or complicated
recipes to disguise their taste. People often get take-away meals – you buy
the food at the restaurant and than bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain
is quite international!
Some people criticize English food. They say it’s unimaginable, boring,
tasteless, it’s chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables.
The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British
haven’t had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can
compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter?
Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or
two herbs it is absolutely delicious?
If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will
probably say “Fish and chips” then stop. It is disappointing, but true
that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because
the food doesn’t lend itself to such preparations. English cooking is found
at home so it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with a
In most cities in Britain you’ll find Indian, Chinese, French and
Italian restaurants. in London you’ll also find Indonesian, Mexican, Greek…
Cynics will say that this is because English have no “cuisine” themselves,
but this is not quite the true.
All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink
the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the
other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same
things to eat and drink – Tea or Coffee, Bread and butter, Fruit.
Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat at
breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for
breakfast in hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat meat
for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a hot
country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for tea
makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it
The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, bread and Butter, fruit. That is
the usual breakfast of most people in the world.
How tea was first drunk in Britain.11
By the time tea was first introduced into this country (1660), coffee
had already been drunk for several years.
By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for all types and
classes of people – even though a pound of tea cost a skilled worker
perhaps a third of his weekly wage!
Early tea cups had no handles, because they were originally imported
from China. Chinese cups didn’t (and still don’t) have handles.
As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand for more and more
tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth of the English pottery and
porcelain industry, which not long after became world famous for its
The tea break.
Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer a proper, formal, «social» occasion.
We don't dress up to “go out to tea” anymore. But one tea ceremony is still
very important in Britain – the Tea Break! Millions of people in factories
and offices look forward to their tea breaks in the morning and afternoon
Things to do.
1) Make a display of as many pictures, cut from magazines. As you can
showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.
2) Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.
American food and drink.
The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on
cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American
popular view that the British live on tea and fish’n’chips, the Germans
only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and
This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad as
“American food” is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American beef,
for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows that are
raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef is more
tender and tasted better than what is usually offered as an “American
steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato that comes hot
and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the famous Idaho
potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climate and
soil in Idaho.
Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many of
the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue sauce from
the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas have a
competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes are kept
America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is
that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well supplied
with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at relatively low
prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is probably the most
“typical” American food; it has always been more available. But good
Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do hickory-smoked or sugar-
cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs or
In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and vegetable
growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, melons,
cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce, avocados, and cranberries
do not have to be imported. This is one reason why fruit dishes
and salads are so
common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby
and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were farmers.
They also help to keep fresh food on the table.
The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought
with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their countries
and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply amazing. Whether
Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French, German, Greek,
Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican, Vietnamese or
what have you, these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.A.
There seem to be four trends in America at present which are connected
with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable increase in the
number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer specialty foods. These
include those that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes,
those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are
buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more
regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One reason is that they are not
many American women do not feel that their lives are best spent in the
kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and also enjoy a good
meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for
both men and women. For some two decades now, these have been popular
television series on all types and styles of cooking, and the increasing
popularity can easily be seen in the number of best-selling specialty
cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often exotic cooking
devices and spices.
A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in
general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit and
vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and sweet
foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food” chains
which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and
sandwiches, seafoods and
various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent this
trend and while, as many be expected, restaurants also dislike it, many
young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to buy and
eat fast foods.
Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in
1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it
resembled a dachshund’s body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which he
captioned “Hot dog”.
Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was
brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter –
Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in New
York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls – first for a dime apiece,
later, a nickel.
The frank appealed to busy Americans, who – as an early 19th century
comment put it – tend to live by the maxim of “gobble, gulp and go”.
Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.
Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in
1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s, when
the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at a very
low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly caught on as
family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and burger chains offer
Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.
The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. A Tartar
dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice was brought
from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly broiled German
Страницы: 1, 2
Рефераты бесплатно, курсовые, дипломы, научные работы, реферат бесплатно, сочинения, курсовые работы, реферат, доклады, рефераты, рефераты скачать, рефераты на тему и многое другое.
При использовании материалов - ссылка на сайт обязательна.