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... А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

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Basic English

Basic English

Lesson 1

1.                Read and translate the text into Ukrainian

What Is A Computer Language?

Instructing a computer is done with a computer language. A computer language is a set of words, symbols, and commands that a computer can ‘understand’. Computer languages are not spoken to the computer (except in some experimental systems with limited vocabularies). Instead, you type a computer language on the keyboard. The computer then translates what you typed into electrical impulses that represent 0’s and 1’s-the form in which the computer can understand and carry out your instructions. To translate your instructions, the computer needs a language processor that is either built-in into the computer itself or loaded into the computer from a disk. The language processor acts somewhat like a human interpreter who listen to someone speaking English and tells you what the words mean in Ukrainian. It does the translating.

There many different computer languages. You may have heard of BASIC, Pascal, Logo, FORTRAN, COBOL, and others. For your computer to understand one of these languages, it needs a translator for that language.

Why are there different computer languages? The reason for this is that different languages work well for different kinds of tasks.

Programming languages allow people to communicate with computers. Once a job has been identified, the programmer must translate, or code it into a list of instructions for a computer. A computer program for a given task may be written in several different languages. Depending on the task, a programmer will generally pick a language that will involve the least complicated program. It may also be important to the programmer to pick the language that is flexible and widely compatible if the program will have a range of applications. C and BASIC or commonly used programming languages.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian

Instructing a computer, a set of words, experimental systems, limited vocabularies, electrical impulses, to carry out instructions, loaded from a disk, human interpreter, to communicate with the computer, depending on a task, the least complicated program, flexible, widely compatible, a range of applications.

3.                Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences

1.                 Cathy can’t come to the phone because she (wash) her hair. 2. Ann (wash) her hair every other day or so. 3. Cathy (sit, usually) in the front row during class, but today she (sit) in the last row. 4. Please, be quiet. I (try) to concentrate. 5. (You, always, lock) your apartment when you leave? 6. I wrote to my friend last week. She hasn’t answered to my letter yet. I (still, wait) for reply. 7. After three days of rain, I’m glad that the sun (shine) again today. 8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in the window and (wake) me up. 9. Look! It (snow). –It’s beautiful! This is the first time I’ve ever seen snow. It (not, snow) in my country. 10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not) to school right now because it’s summer.

4.                Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences

1.                 (You, go out) last night or (be) you tired? 2. Mozart (write) more than 600 pieces o music. 3. What (you, do) when I called? 4. My father (teach) me driving when our cousin (come). 5. We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we (sell) it. 6. While I (read), Josh (play) the piano. 7. I was very thirsty. I (drink) the water very quickly.

5. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to be’ and sentences with them:

To be absent бути відсутнім

To be afraid боятися

To be angry with сердитися на

To be away бути у від’їзді

To be back повертатися

To be pleased with бути задоволеним

To be displeased with бути незадоволеним

To be fond of любити

To be frightened лякатися

To be glad бути задоволеним

To be hungry бути голодним

To be ill (sick) бути хворим

To be in (out) бути присутнім (відсутнім)

To be in a hurry (for) поспішати

To be in high spirits бути в хорошому настрої

To be in low spirits бути в поганому настрої

To be interested in цікавитися

To be late (for) запізнюватися

To be … minutes fast поспішати на … хвилин

To be … minutes slow запізнюватись на … хвилин

Lesson 2

1.                Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Structured languages

You’ve already learned something about the BASIC language. You will probably go on someday to learn other programming languages as well. Different languages are designed for different purposes. BASIC is an all-purpose language, meaning that you can do almost everything in BASIC. But some things will be rather hard to do in BASIC. For example, although you have seen how to write programs with a top-down structure in BASIC, other languages make it easier to write such structured or modular programs.

Logo is a structured language that is often taught in schools and is available for many microcomputers. You may be familiar with Logo because many schools use it to do ‘turtle graphics’. ‘A turtle is a cursor on the screen. It’s called a turtle because it is often shaped like one. You can tell the turtle to move left, right, up, down, or turn a certain number of degrees. You can see the turtle move on the screen. The turtle can also draw on the screen. If you tell it to put its pen down, it traces a line as it moves, or it can pick up the pen and not draw a line. (There are also mechanical turtles that move on the floor).

Logo is the language that can help you to write structured programs. For example, in Logo you can tell a turtle to carry out a set of commands that draws a rectangle on the screen. Then you can call a set of commands ‘box’. Each time you tell the turtle to ‘do box’, it will draw the rectangle. ‘Box’ has become a module of a program. You can create a whole series of routines that draw different shapes or parts of pictures. Then you can combine them all in one statement and call the whole thing ‘house’. Then you can make ‘house’ part of another routine, and so on. Your whole program can consist of series of statements defining different routines and then a few statements calling theses routines in the correct order.

Logo doesn’t just do turtle graphics, it is a complete language. But whether you use the language t draw a house or compute complex mathematical functions, the modular structure of the language is the same.

Pascal is also a structured language. Pascal has some features that make structured programming easier. For example, it allows you to indent the statements in a loop so that you can see the beginning and the end of each loop. Pascal also has certain requirements that make you plan your program carefully. For example, you requires you to define all your variables before you begin.

One Disadvantage of Pascal is that it is often a compiled language. A compiled language is one that must be translated by a compiler into code that the computer can understand before the program can be run.

2.                Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To design for different purposes, all-purpose language, to be rather hard, top-down structure, modular programs, to be available, to trace a line, a set of commands, whole series of routine, to combine, in the correct order, to intend the statement, disadvantage.

3.                Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1.                 He (attend) college from September to may every year, but in summers he (usually, have) a job at the post office. In fact, he (work) there this summer. 2. I (think) about the grammar. 3. I (have) trouble. 4. She (have) a good time. 5. The chef (taste) the sauce. 6. Don (smell) the roses. 7. The doctor (see) a patient. 8. Sue (feel) the cat’s fur. 9. I (look) out of the window. 10. The grocer (weigh) the bananas.

4.                Translate into English:

1.                 – Ти ходив куди-небудь учора ввечері? – Ні, я залишився вдома. 2. Коли Нік їздив у Лондон? 3. Чайковський написав багато опер. 4. Що ти робив, коли я зателефонував тобі? 5. Мій батько вчив мене водити автомобіль, коли почався дощ. 6. Ми не змогли дозволити собі утримувати нашу машину, тому продали її. 7. У той час, коли я читав, Джон грав на піаніно.

5.                Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

Work for the Future

You may become the bookkeeper after graduating from the technological college and work at the industrial enterprises, banks, churches, hospital, political parties, retail stores, and a wide variety of other organizations. The students of the department ‘Accounting’ study following subjects: bookkeeping, computer studies, marketing, foreign languages, statistics, managements and others.

The bookkeeper has to know organization of industrial management, cost-accounting and audit. High-qualified book-keeper must work quickly and accurately with figures and data and concentrate on details.

Beginners handle routine transactions. After gaining more experience, they are given responsibilities involving payrolls and other records. Good bookkeepers have opportunities to advance to jobs on a higher level and, with additional training, to move into accounting departments. Many skilled, experienced bookkeepers hold positions in management.

More and more organizations depend on computers and other machines in the operation of their bookkeeping systems. Therefore, beginning bookkeepers should have a basic knowledge of data processing and know how to operate various office machines. People in this field must continually keep their skills up to date as employers use increasingly complex equipment to handle all aspects of bookkeeping.

The students are taught by highly-qualified stuff of teachers. Theoretical and practical training on enterprises is combined with scientific work. They operate modern equipment, read scientific literature which deals with their specialty. All these help to turn a student into a highly-skilled bookkeeper, ready for independent work.

6.                Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to be’ and sentences with them:

To be in two minds сумніватися

To be of importance мати значення

To be of interest представляти інтерес

To be on іти (про спектакль, фільм)

To be on duty бути черговим

To be over закінчуватись

To be present (at) бути присутнім

To be ready (for) бути готовим (до)

To be responsible (for) бути відповідальним (за)

To be right бути правим

To be sorry for шкодувати (про)

To be sure (of) бути впевненим (в)

To be surprised (at) здивуватися

To be thirsty хотіти пити

To be tired (of) бути стомленим

To be through (with) закінчити (щось)

To be under construction будуватися

To be under consideration розглядатися

To be under discussion обговорюватися

To be under way відбуватися

To be up закінчитися

To be upset бути засмученим

To be worried хвилюватися

To be wrong помилятися

Lesson 3

1.                Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Languages for Other Tasks

Some languages are very well suited to tasks that are hard to do in BASIC. For example, FORTRAN is a language that is very similar to BASIC, but it is better for scientific applications. FORTRAN contains commands that make it easier to do engineering problems and use mathematics for solving scientific problems. It allows the programmer to program mathematical formulas more easily than does BASIC. FORTRAN is available for some microcomputers.

COBOL is a language that was developed mainly for large computers and may be available on a few microcomputers. It is designed for business uses and is particularly good for report writing. It makes it easy to set up very complicated reports with rows and columns, and to print these on a screen or a printer.

Assembly language

The language described so far are called high-level languages because they are far removed from the low-level machine language binary command that the computer can understand directly. Many students who begin with BASIC go on to learn to write assembly-language programs. Assembly language is not a high-level language. It is much closer to the machine language of the computer.

In assembly language you work with what you might think of as building blocks to create your program. Because you can use these blocks in many ways, you can create commands that don’t exist in BASIC. You can also control the computer directly and control external peripherals like home security systems through the computer. A program that is written in an assembly language also runs much faster than a program that is written in BASIC because it does not need to be interpreted like BASIC.

Assembly language can also be used to write programs that will run on several different computers. Any computer with the same computer chip will use the same assembly language.

Unfortunately, assembly language is very difficult to use. It takes much longer to write a program in assembly language than it does in any high-level language. Assembly language is not a structured language, so it is very difficult for someone else to understand your programs.

2.                Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To be suited to tasks; scientific applications; commands; to do engineering problems; scientific problems; to be available; complicated reports; on a screen; assembly language; security systems.

3.                Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1.                 Sometimes Tom (be) foolish. 2. I can’t afford that ring. It (cost) too much. 3. Look. It (begin) to rain. Unfortunately, I (not, have) my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear) a raincoat. 4. There’s a book on my desk, but it (not belong) to me. 5. Who is that woman who (stand) next to the window?-Which woman? (You, talk) about the woman who (wear) the blue and gold dress? –No, I (talk, not) about her. I (mean) the woman who (wear) the blue suit. –Oh, I (not, know) her.

4.                Translate into English:

1.                 Зараз я сиджу в класі. Вчора в цей час я читав детектив. 2. Я не слухав учителя, тому пропустив те, що він сказав. 3. Вони не запросили Сью на вечірку, тому вона і не прийшла. 4. – У тебе вчора був час написати листа? – Ні, не було. 5. Коли я відкрив посилку, то виявив там сюрприз. 6. Я не чув грозу, тому що спав. 7. Я не хотів нікуди йти, тому що йшов дощ. 8. Коли я прокинувся, яскраво світило сонце та співали пташки.

5.                Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

A Bus Ride

Charles: Now come along, James. I’m going to take you for a bus-ride through London. Cheap and instructive.

James: Good idea.

Ch: We’ll go on top. You see more. In the good old days the top of the bus was open. Still, we can see a good deal.

Conductor: Fares, please.

Ch: What’s the fair to Victoria Station?

Conductor: Four pence, please.

Ch: Now we’re going over London Bridge. Look, James, there’s a ‘Pool’. Fascinating place, with all the shipping.

J: Yes, I remember that.

Ch: And there’s the Monument. It was erected…

J: In memory of the Great Fire, which started in Fish Street in 17th century.

Ch: You know too much. Look, there’s the Bank… Passing along Cannon Street, we reach St. Paul’s…

J: Erected by sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire. That’s the Temple, isn’t it?

Ch: Yes, where the lawyers live. Now the bus makes a spurt and we arrive at Trafalgar Square-the National Gallery-finest collection of pictures in Europe.

J: Want to get out?

Ch: No, thank you. Over there is the Haymarket, leading to the theater land and Shaftsbury Avenue, Piccadilly Circus and the shopping district.

J: My turn. On the left, the House of Parliament, containing the House of Lords and the House of Commons…

Ch: And Westminster Abbey, begun by Edward the Confessor. When?

J: I’ve no idea.

Ch: I do like a bus-ride with the intelligent guide! Victoria Street.

J: Nothing much to say here.

Ch: Look at all the people leaving the continent. Biggest station.

J: You’re wrong here. Leipzig is bigger.

6.                Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to have’ and sentences with them:

To have breakfast снідати

To have lunch снідати другий раз

To have dinner обідати

To have supper вечеряти

To have coffee (tea) пити каву (чай)

To have soup (beefsteak, salad) їсти суп (біфштекс, салат)

To have a snack перекусити

To have a drink випити

To have a smoke покурити

To have a (good, nice, high) time (добре, чудово) провести час

To have a thin time мати неприємності

To have a quarrel посваритися

To have a row поскандалити

To have a talk поговорити

To have a walk прогулятися пішки

To have a look at подивитись на

To have a bath прийняти ванну

To have a shower прийняти душ

To have a rest відпочити

To have a break (time-out) зробити перерву

To have a rough time терпіти важкі часи

To have a meal поїсти

Lesson 4

1.                Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Computer Trespassing

Breaking into a computer system (using it when you don’t have the permission) is a crime. It s called computer trespassing.

People break into computer systems for many reasons. They might do it to find our private records, to change or destroy information, to steal money or goods, or simply to show they know how to do it.

Computer trespassing is a serious problem. Important information ranging from medical records to top secret military information is often stored in computer systems. If someone changes, destroys, or steals the information, he or she might cause a serious damage. For example, trespasser in a hospital computer system might endanger a patient’s health by changing his or her medical records. In a case of a government computer system, a computer trespasser might threaten national security by stealing military information. A trespasser in a bank’s computer system might steal millions of dollars.

How can we prevent computer trespassing? One way to prevent information stored in computer systems is to use passwords or number codes. The words or codes are programmed into the computer system. The system will admit only those people who enter the correct code. An alarm alerts a security guard if someone enters an incorrect code more than once.

The computer systems use cryptography (secret writing) to protect information. Such systems store information in the computer in coded or scrambled form. F you don’t know how to scramble the information, it is meaningless.

Federal and state laws also protect information stored in computer systems. One federal law prohibits people from using a computer system without permission. It also prohibits the use of a computer system: (1) to steal money or goods worth 5000$ or more; (2) to use, change, destroy, or reveal restricted information in government files; (3) to obtain financial information and credit records that are protected by other federal laws.

2.                Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Computer system; computer trespassing; change or destroy information; secret military information; serious damage; threaten national security; use passwords; to protect information; meaningless; federal laws.

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